Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin last week told President Vladimir Putin he had been diagnosed and was temporarily stepping down to recover.
First Deputy Prime Minister Andrei Belousov is replacing Mishustin in his absence.
Putin said Mishustin was recovering from the virus despite still having a fever.
"He is taking part in our daily work, in the preparation of our decisions," Putin said of the prime minister at a videoconferenced government meeting broadcast on state television.
Construction Minister Vladimir Yakushev said last week he had been diagnosed with the virus and would be treated in hospital. Dmitry Volkov, one of his deputies, also tested positive, the ministry said at the time.
The country's coronavirus crisis response centre said on Wednesday that the number of cases had risen by more than 10,000 for a fourth consecutive day and stood at 165,929. Russia has recorded 1,537 coronavirus-related deaths.
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